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BASICS OF computer Kernel

The kernel is the central module of an operating system (OS). It is the part of the operating system that loads first, and it remains in main memory. Because it stays in memory, it is important for the kernel to be as small as possible while still providing all the essential services required by other parts of the operating system and applications. The the kernel code is usually loaded into a protected area of memory to prevent it from being overwritten by programs or other parts of the operating system.

The critical code of the kernel is usually loaded into a protected area of memory, which prevents it from being overwritten by applications or other, more minor parts of the operating system. The kernel performs its tasks, such as running processes and handling interrupts, in kernel space. In contrast, everything a user does is in user space: writing text in a text editor, running programs in a GUI, etc. This separation prevents user data and kernel data from interfering with each other and causing instability and slowness.

There are two types of kernels:

A microkernel, which only contains basic functionality;
A monolithic kernel, which contains many device drivers.

Microkernels have the same function as monolithic kernels, but they are designed to be as small as possible. Instead of managing all the resources from a single codebase, the kernel handles only the most basic functions. It uses modules or "servers" to manage everything else. For example, device drivers are typically included in a monolithic kernel, but they would be split into separate modules in a microkernel. This design is more complex, but it can provide a more efficient use of system resources and helps protect against system crashes.

 Kernel Panics :

Since the kernel handles the most basic functions of a computer, if it crashes it can take down the entire computer. This undesirable event is called a "kernel panic" on macOS and Unix systems. It is similar to the blue screen of death in Windows. The only way to recover from a kernel panic is to restart your computer.

NOTE: Kernel panics are often caused by hardware communication issues. Therefore, if your computer is producing repeated kernel panics, try unplugging unnecessary devices to see if that fixes the problem.



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